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Презентация на тему SECONDARY WAYS OF WORD-BUILDING

SECONDARY WAYS OF WORD-BUILDING I. ShorteningII. BlendingIII. Onomatopoeia – sound-imitationIV. Back-formation (reversion, disaffixation)V. Sound interchange (gradation)VI. Distinctive stress (distinctive change)

Слайды и текст этой презентации

Слайд 1SECONDARY WAYS OF WORD-BUILDING


Seminar 4

SECONDARY WAYS  OF WORD-BUILDINGSeminar 4

Слайд 2SECONDARY WAYS OF WORD-BUILDING
I. Shortening
II. Blending
III. Onomatopoeia – sound-imitation
IV. Back-formation (reversion,

disaffixation)
V. Sound interchange (gradation)
VI. Distinctive stress (distinctive change)

SECONDARY WAYS OF WORD-BUILDING I. ShorteningII. BlendingIII. Onomatopoeia – sound-imitationIV. Back-formation (reversion, disaffixation)V. Sound interchange (gradation)VI. Distinctive

Слайд 3Shortening

Shortenings (or contracted or curtailed words) can be divided into two

large groups:
lexical and spelling shortenings.
Shortening 		Shortenings (or contracted or curtailed words) can be divided into two large groups: 			lexical and spelling

Слайд 4Clipped words (part of the word is clipped, cut off)
Aphaeresis: history

– story, telephone – phone, omnibus - bus, motor-car – car, defence – fence, example – sample.

Syncope : market – mart, mathematics – maths, spectacles – specs.

Apocope: permanent wave – perm, zoological garden – zoo, examination – exam, graduate – grad, advertisement – ad, champion – champ, photograph – photo, laboratory – lab, public house – pub, gymnastics – gym.

combination of aphaeresis and apocope: influenza – flu, refrigerator – fridge, avant-guard – van, van-guard, professor – fess.

Clipped words (part of the word is clipped, cut off)Aphaeresis: history – story, telephone – phone, omnibus

Слайд 5Initial shortenings
a) alphabetical pronunciation
TUC _____________________
BBC _____________________
RAF _____________________
SOS _____________________
MP _____________________
P.M. _____________________

Initial shortenings 	a) alphabetical pronunciation		TUC	_____________________		BBC	_____________________		RAF	_____________________		SOS	_____________________		MP	_____________________		P.M. 	_____________________

Слайд 6Initial shortenings
b) acronyms
NATO _________________________
UNO _________________________
UNESCO _________________________
AIDS _________________________
b) acronyms
NATO, UNO, UNESCO (United Nations Economic Scientific

and Cultural Organisation),
AIDS
Initial shortenings 	b) acronymsNATO	_________________________UNO	_________________________UNESCO	_________________________AIDS 	_________________________b) acronymsNATO, UNO, UNESCO (United Nations Economic Scientific and Cultural Organisation),AIDS

Слайд 7Spelling shortenings
1) Latin:
a.m. (ante meridian) _____________________
p.m. (post meridian) _____________________
cf. (confere) _____________________
i.e. (id

est) _____________________
e.g. (example gratia) _____________________
ff. (felice) _____________________
L (libra) _____________________
s. (solidis) _____________________
 
2) Native spelling shortenings
a) forms of address: Mr, Mrs, Ms
b) units of weight, time, distance, electricity: min, sec., in, m, p, ft, v, cm
c) military ranks, scientific degrees: capt., c-in-c, BSc, BA, MA, MSc, PhD
d) names of offices: Govt., Dept.

Spelling shortenings 1) Latin:a.m. (ante meridian)	_____________________p.m. (post meridian) 	_____________________cf. (confere) 		_____________________i.e. (id est) 			_____________________e.g. (example gratia) 	_____________________ff.

Слайд 8When a shortened word appears in the language the full form

may

1) disappear: avanguarde – vanguard, van; mobile vulgus – mob, fanaticus – fan
2) remain, but have different meaning:
courtesy – curtsy; to espy – to spy
3) remain but belong to another part of speech:
to estrange – strange
4) remain and belong to some other style:
doc – doctor, prof – professor.

When a shortened word appears in the language the full form may  1) disappear: avanguarde –

Слайд 9 cinema – cinematograph

bus – omnibus

taxi – taximotor

cab – cabriolet
 

cinema – cinematograph bus – omnibus taxi – taximotorcab – cabriolet 

Слайд 10Blending
Blendings are words that are created from parts of two already

existing items, usually the first part from one and the final part of the other:
branch ___________+____________
smog ___________+____________
spam ___________+____________
chunnel ___________+____________
motel ___________+____________
bit ___________+____________
workaholic, medicare, Eurotunnel, slanguage, guesstimate.

Blending 	Blendings are words that are created from parts of two already existing items, usually the first

Слайд 11Onomatopoeia – sound-imitation
Formation of words from sounds that resemble those associated

by the object or action to be named, or that seem suggestive of its qualities:
cock-a-doodle-do
quack (duck)
croak (frog)
mew, meow
moo, low
crow, cuckoo, humming-bird, whip-poor-will, cricket.

Onomatopoeia – sound-imitation	Formation of words from sounds that resemble those associated by the object or action to

Слайд 12Back-formation (reversion, disaffixation)
process that creates a new word by removing a

real or supposed affix from another word in a language:
enthuse
donate
orientate
self-destruct
to lase __________________
to liposuct __________________
Back-formation (reversion, disaffixation)	process that creates a new word by removing a real or supposed affix from another

Слайд 13Sound interchange (gradation)
formation of a word due to an alteration in

the phonemic composition of it root:
speak - speech
blood – bleed
food – feed
strong – strength
advice – advise
life – live

Sound interchange (gradation)	formation of a word due to an alteration in the phonemic composition of it root:

Слайд 14Distinctive stress (distinctive change)
formation of a word by the means of

the shift of the stress in the source word:

increase (n) – increase (v)
absent (adj) – absent (v)
Distinctive stress (distinctive change)	formation of a word by the means of the shift of the stress in

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